**Primary Sutras (formulas)**

These vedic maths sutras deal with individual mathematical operations (i.e. multiplication, division, squares, factorization, etc.)

These vedic maths sutras help augment the basic calculations while using the primary sutras or while doing normal mathematical calculations.

- Last from 10 and the rest from 9
- Cross-wise and Vertical
- By one more than the one before.
- Apply after transposing
- It is zero if the Samuccaya is Same
- If One is in Ratio the Other is Zero
- By Subtraction and by Addition
- By the Completion or Non-Completion
- Differential Calculus
- Use Deficiency
- Specific and General
- The Ultimate and Twice the Penultimate
- The Remainders by the Last Digit
- By One Less than the One Before
- All the Multipliers.
- The Product of the Sum

**Secondary Sutras (Formula)**These vedic maths sutras help augment the basic calculations while using the primary sutras or while doing normal mathematical calculations.

- Proportionately
- The Remainder Remains Constant
- For 7 the Multiplicand is 143
- The First by the First and the Last by the Last
- By Osculation
- Lessen by the Deficiency
- The Product of the Sum is the Sum of the Products
- Set up the Square of the Deficiency
- Whatever the Deficiency lessen by that amount and
- Last Totalling 10
- The Sum of the Products
- Only the Last Terms
- On the Flag
*(Not mentioned in vedic maths original books)* - By Alternative Elimination and Retention
- By Mere Observation

Consider how you read your time on the clock. Every time the short hand goes one round, it will be 12 hours. So when the shorthand goes past another hour, it will be 13 hours, and the time might be 13 o’ clock. We know, however that 13’ o clock is actually 1 o’ clock. Same to 25 o’ clock, it still means the same thing. We say that the clock follows a modular system. math

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